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VETA is a government institution mandated the role of providing, facilitating financial support and promoting vocational education and training in Tanzania. VETA provides vocational education and training with consciousness of and in response to the demand of the labour market. The ultimate objective of the trainings is to enhance employability; both wage employment and self-employment and career progression of its graduates.
The demand driven VET system calls for:
i. Close alignment to job demand;
ii. Flexibility in modes of delivery;
iii. Integration of business and entrepreneurial skills;
iv. Integration into the country’s social and economic policies and plans.
Therefore, VETA provides vocational education and training through four delivery approaches:
i. Institutional Based Training
ii. Apprenticeship Training or work based learning
iii. Outreach and
iv. Skills enhancement
2. Training delivery approaches
2.1 Institutional based training
Institutional based training is provided through long and short courses, organized in thirteen occupations namely, Mechanical; Electrical; Civil and Building Engineering; Automotive; Commercial Services and Business Support; Clothing and Textile; Transport; Mining; Printing; Cosmetology; Agriculture and Food Processing; and Hospitality, Tourism and Travel Agency and Fine and Performing Arts.
2.2 Apprenticeship training
Apprenticeship training is a work-based training. Apprenticeship can either be informal or formal.
Informal apprenticeship is the most prevalent way of skills acquisition for poor and marginalized communities in the informal economy. Informal apprenticeships are purely workplace based. A young person learns by observation and imitation from experienced master crafts person, acquires the skills of the trade and is inducted into the culture and networks of the business. Formal apprenticeship is organised and the training involves both training institution and workplace.
Currently, VETA is implementing three apprenticeship training programmes: 1. Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL); 2. Dual Apprenticeship programme and Integrated Mining Technical Training (IMTT).
i. Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL)
VETA is championing upgrading informal apprenticeship programme through Recognition of Prior Learning Assessment (RPLA) followed by tailor made skills upgrading programmes and finally Certification. Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) is the process to assess the skills and knowledge of a person regardless of how, when and where the learning occurred against prescribed standards for modular or full qualifications. Learning may have occurred through non-formal or formal training or through life or work experience but never recognized and/or certified. At vocational level, RPL is done to people working at operational or artisanal level.
In a nutshell, implementation of RPL at VETA involves the following steps:
• An informal apprentice, who meet the criteria applies for RPLA by filling a form;
• RPLA facilitator guides the candidate about the RPL procedures; eligibility; competences required for assessment and portfolio development as part of evidence;
• Candidates submit the application; VETA assessors screens it and interviews the candidates;
• The candidates get prepared for assessment;
• Candidates get assessed against prescribed standards for the selected qualifications;
• VETA organises training for upgrading of apprentices’ skills, (filling the gaps);
• Apprentices get examined;
• Award of certificates to qualified candidates.
Benefits of RPL
• Provides pathways to formal training for those who missed out or those who previously did not qualify;
• Provides opportunity to get better jobs, move to formal economy or qualify to function as a professional;
• Provides access to apply for government tenders, which otherwise would not be accessible because of lack of recognition or certificates;
• Improves self-esteem and respect in business cycle;
• Promotes equity and social inclusion and flexibility through multiple entry and exit learning mechanisms;
• For employers, certified workers improve their business image and qualify businesses for quality assurance certification bodies like TBS and ISO and registration.
ii. Dual Apprenticeship
The Dual Apprenticeship training is the system whereby apprentices (trainees) alternate between the training centre and the workplace (industry)-block release system. In this system, much emphasis is put at the workplace since the Apprentices can easily learn skills through repetition. The System is designed to help people, without previous training, to enter the job market as apprentices in a craft of their choice.
Partition of the Block Release system
The 52 weeks of the year are spread into three blocks allows apprentices to spend a total of 32 weeks at the workplace and 20 weeks at the VETA training centres.
In the nutshell Dual apprenticeship involves the following steps:
• The industry signs MOU with a VETA Centre;
• The industry recruits the Apprentices by following guidelines provided by VETA;
• The Apprentice signs Apprenticeship contract with the Industry in concern;
• Apprentice brings the Apprenticeship Contract to VETA Centre for registration and starts Apprenticeship Training straight forward.
Benefits of Dual Apprenticeship
• Reducing mismatch between training and labour market needs:
It reduces to a minimum the mismatch between training being provided on the one hand and the labour market skills demand on the other hand. Working and training closely under qualified tradesmen ensures that the apprentices acquire skills levels that are actually needed in the labour market.
• Assurance of availability of skilled labour:
The youth are trained mainly by the workplace for employment at the end of which industrial employers are assured of the availability of a skilled workforce with the required hands-on skills they are looking for;
• Tackling youth unemployment:
The system assures entry into the labour market for the young. It is in that way an effective steps in tackling youth unemployment ;
• Helps youth to gain professional soft skills:
While being train in the industry, apprentices also learn about company values and work ethics which will help them in their professional career at the same time that they provide companies with a reliable work force;
• Enhancing productivity:
the programme has potential of creating enough skilled labour force that will help to address the problem of scarcity of skilled labour in the industries, thus enhance productivity;
• Increase enrolment in VET Centres:
The programme is coordinated in blocks therefore allow the centres to enrol new intake while other apprentices released to industries (on the job training).
iii. Integrated Mining Technical Training (IMTT)
Integrated Mining Technical Training (IMTT) programme is the result of collaboration between VETA and Tanzania Chamber of Minerals and Energy (TCME). The programme started in the year 2008 at the VETA Centre in Moshi, Kilimanjaro region. The programme is conducted in collaboration with mining and construction companies. The objectives of the programme are:
a) Enhancing skills training and development for supporting the mining sector;
b) Production of competent artisans for supporting Tanzania’s economic development;
c) Enhancing relationship between training centres and employers in the mining sector and other sectors and;
d) To produce craftsmen with skills, which are in line with the prevailing technology.
The training is conducted through apprenticeship system, which allow apprentices to alternate between the training centres and workplaces during the whole period of their training circle.
The companies participating in the training programme include ACACIA (Bulyanhulu; Buzwagi, North Mara); Geita Gold Mining; Kabanga; Sandvik; Mantrac; Pan-Africa; Atlass copco and Shanta Gold Mine.
Trades offered through IMTT
• Heavy Moving Equipment mechanics
• Fitting and Machining
• Platter Welding
• Auto Electrical
• Industrial Electrical
Subsidiary courses are rigging; driving; computer and pneumatics and hydraulic.
Currently, VETA provides outreach training mainly through its Integrated Training for Entrepreneurship Promotion (INTEP) programme. (INTEP) is an employment-oriented, integrated vocational education and training focusing on training people who are un-employed, underemployed, or those who are working in the informal sector (micro and small enterprises) in both urban and rural settings.
Courses offered through INTEP are normally short and are often tailor-made. Apart from integration and linkages of training with business promotion in order to create employment, INTEP is used as a gender oriented approach, focusing mainly on women and youths.
Benefits of INTEP
• goes beyond the traditional VET approach of mere technical training;
• considers socially related demands of the community;
• considers the social and economic activities of the target groups for moving towards demand driven VET;
• provides a relevant link between VET and the socio-economic context of Tanzania;
• provides a tool of implementation of different national policy strategies
2.3 Skills Enhancement Programme (SEP)
The Skills Enhancement Programme is meant to support in providing training to employees of different companies with the view of updating and upgrading skills to address changing technologies and needs in workplaces, thus improving productivity.
The main objective of the Skills Enhancement Programme is thus to ensure the availability of appropriate skills to companies for improved productivity, competitiveness and sustainable employability of the workforce. In particular, the programme focuses on the following specific objectives: -
• To upgrade and update skills of the employees to enable the companies raise productivity and improve quality of products and service delivery as a direct benefit to levy contribution;
• To enhance partnership between VETA and employers through effective collaboration in competence building of the workforce;
• To share and facilitate technological experience and changes taking place in industries in order to provide training for emerging skills.
VETA HEAD OFFICE,
12 VETA Road.
P.O. BOX 802, Dodoma Tanzania,
Telephone: +255 26 2963661
Fax: +255 22 2863408